EMERGING AND RE-EMERGING VIRAL DISEASES
International Collaboration for Control
November 27 - 30, 2018 Desert Rose Resort, Hurghada, Egypt
Short Summary and Recommendations of the 7th International Conference of ESV
- Immunology is an important discipline for the control of viral diseases not only for medical but also for veterinary research and application.
- Immunology can be used to inform vaccine design and test vaccine efficacy at an early stage.
- Targeting key immune cells, such as Dendritic cells, determines the outcome of a vaccine.
- Established immunologic tools, such as flow cytometry and ELISpot need to be implemented into practice in Egypt.
- MERS-CoV remains an emerging threat; but the virus is very stable and not rapidly mutating.
- MERS-CoV mainly affects persons with pre-conditions already existing - thus the best approach for disease control is to target camels rather than humans.
- The spread of MERS-CoV seems to be related to the human and camel interaction, which is particularly intense in the Arabian Peninsula.
- Several vaccines against MERS-CoV were successfully tested; mainly recombinant vaccines based on MVA or VSV.
- VSV as a vaccine base may be considered safe - but in the lab and clinically, it has to be differentiated from FMD, which remains a challenge.
- Avian influenza remains a pertinent threat to poultry in Egypt
- H5-based existing vaccines seem to provide a degree of cross-protection limiting the spread of H5N8, which is mainly found on live bird markets.
- A key problem in the fight of influenza (and other viruses) is the correct application of efficacious, properly manufactured vaccines.
- It seems unlikely that the Florida clade 2 equine influenza virus has just and particular in Egypt broke through vaccination.
- Emerging H7NX viruses are another zoonotic threat identified in China and circulating in other countries already that needs to be monitored.
- A problem is that old influenza vaccines may limit disease, but not necessarily spread of the virus.
- Efficient good vaccines were another topic featuring intensively.
- Often there is more than one route to a good vaccine.
- For LSDV an attenuated sheep pox virus is already established, but it is not DIVA compatible.
- A promising concept for inactivated vaccines was presented, but it requires further research not least into adjuvants that can be used in the field.
- All vaccines need to be batch quality controlled before application.
- Antiviral drugs may be an alternative to vaccination - but due to prohibitive costs mainly in the medical field and even there mainly an emergency response for front line staff supporting vaccines. For example, against influenza viruses or supporting an emergency Ebola outbreak response.
- Antiviral drugs are also important against Hepatitis C and diseases against which there is no vaccination yet, such as CMV in humans. But costs prevent their use in veterinary field and they should not be used off label as it is too common in Egypt.
- Food borne viral infections are a neglect issue in Egypt that needs to be considered further. The prevalence of such virus infections is largely unknown and needs to be addressed establishing validated tests for different matrices
- Viruses such as Hepatitis A virus and Norovirus are particularly prominent and infection is mostly linked to contaminated water supplies.
- Biosecurity in the food production has to be reviewed regularly to ensure food safety.
- Using sequence information to follow outbreaks is a huge opportunity to complement control tools for viral outbreaks, identifying the source of the outbreak
- Phylogeography can add spatial tools to understand the spread after the event.
- In case of highly variable viruses (such as influenza and retroviruses), phylogenetic analysis can add to the selection of current vaccine strains.